Sand Casting refers to castings that are formed by pouring molten metal into a mold or cavity made up of sand. The molten metal assumes the shape of the cavity that has been formed in a sand mold by ramming a prepared moist sand around a pattern and then removing the pattern.
Sand casting is an expendable mould type process that uses sand as the primary mould material. The sand grains, mixed with a small amount of other materials to improve mouldability and cohesive strength, are packed around a pattern that has the shape of the desired casting. After the sand has been packed around it, the patterns must generally be removed to leave a cavity of the desired shape.