Eight Disciplines Problem Solving (8D) is a method used to approach and to resolve problems, typically employed by quality engineers or other professionals.
D0: The Planning Phase: Plan for solving the problem and determine the prerequisites.
D1: Use a Team: Establish a team of people with product/process knowledge.
D2: Define and describe the Problem: Specify the problem by identifying in quantifiable terms the who, what, where, when, why, how, and how many (5W2H) for the problem.
D3: Developing Interim Containment Plan Implement and verify Interim Actions: Define and implement containment actions to isolate the problem from any customer.
D4: Determine and Identify and Verify Root Causes and escape points: Identify all applicable causes that could explain why the problem has occurred. Also identify why the problem has not been noticed at the time it occurred. All causes shall be verified or proved, not determined by fuzzy brainstorming. One can use 5Whys or Ishikawa Diagram to map causes against effect/Problem identified.
D5: Choose and verify Permanent Corrections (PCs) for Problem/Non Conformity: Through pre-production programs quantitatively confirm that the selected correction will resolve the problem for the customer.
D6: Implement and validate PCAs: Define and Implement the best corrective actions.
D7: Prevent recurrence/Corrective Actions: Modify the management systems, operation systems, practices, and procedures to prevent recurrence of this and all similar problems.
D8: Congratulate your Team: Recognize the collective efforts of the team. The team needs to be formally thanked by the organization.
8D has become a standard in the Auto, Assembly and other industries that require a thorough structured problem solving process using a team approach.