Referees to an inventory stock level where you need to reorder material to prevent a stock shortage. The reorder point is usually calculated by using the usage rate and the reorder time.
The reorder point for replenishment of stock occurs when the level of inventory drops down to zero. In view of instantaneous replenishment of stock the level of inventory jumps to the original level from zero level. In real life situations one never encounters a zero lead time. There is always a time lag from the date of placing an order for material and the date on which materials are received. As a result the reorder point is always higher than zero, and if the firm places the order when the inventory reaches the reorder point, the new goods will arrive before the firm runs out of goods to sell. The decision on how much stock to hold is generally referred to as the order point problem, that is, how low should the inventory be depleted before it is reordered.
The two factors that determine the appropriate order point are the delivery time stock which is the Inventory needed during the lead time (i.e., the difference between the order date and the receipt of the inventory ordered) and the safety stock which is the minimum level of inventory that is held as a protection against shortages due to fluctuations in demand. Therefore:
Reorder Point = Normal consumption during lead-time + Safety Stock.
Several factors determine how much delivery time stock and safety stock should be held. In summary, the efficiency of a replenishment system affects how much delivery time is needed. Since the delivery time stock is the expected inventory usage between ordering and receiving inventory, efficient replenishment of inventory would reduce the need for delivery time stock. And the determination of level of safety stock involves a basic trade-off between the risk of stockout, resulting in possible customer dissatisfaction and lost sales, and the increased costs associated with carrying additional inventory.