Deming Cycle


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Deming Cycle - short version

Plan - Do - Study - Act (PDSA) cycle. Walter Shewhart created it (calling it the plan-do-check-act cycle), but W. Edwards Deming popularized it, calling it plan-do-studyact. Also see "plan-do-check-act cycle.



Deming Cycle - long version

The Deming cycle /circle/wheel, Shewhart cycle, control circle/cycle, PDCA (plan–do–check–act) or plan–do–study–act (PDSA) is an iterative four-step management method used in business for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products.

The steps in each successive Deming cycle / PDCA cycle are:

PLAN

Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals). By establishing output expectations, the completeness and accuracy of the specification is also a part of the targeted improvement. When possible start on a small scale to test possible effects.

DO

Implement the plan, execute the process, make the product. Collect data for charting and analysis in the following "CHECK" and "ACT" steps.

CHECK

Study the actual results (measured and collected in "DO" above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the "PLAN") to ascertain any differences. Charting data can make this much easier to see trends over several PDCA cycles and in order to convert the collected data into information. Information is what you need for the next step "ACT".

ACT

Request corrective actions on significant differences between actual and planned results. Analyze the differences to determine their root causes. Determine where to apply changes that will include improvement of the process or product. When a pass through these four steps does not result in the need to improve, the scope to which PDCA is applied may be refined to plan and improve with more detail in the next iteration of the cycle.



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